Power Purchase Agreements Key Issues and Provisions

Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) have become increasingly popular in the renewable energy industry as a means of securing financing for renewable energy projects. PPAs are contracts that define the terms of a transaction between a producer of electricity (seller) and a buyer. The transaction is usually over a long-term period and involves the supply of renewable energy from the seller to the buyer. This article will discuss key issues and provisions that should be considered in PPAs.

Pricing Arrangements

One of the most critical aspects of a PPA is the pricing arrangement. The agreement should clearly outline the price at which the energy will be sold, how that price will be determined, and how it will change over the term of the contract. The cost of producing renewable energy can fluctuate based on several factors such as availability of resources, government incentives, and changes in regulations. Therefore, the PPA should clearly outline how these changes could impact the pricing arrangement.

Creditworthiness of Parties

The creditworthiness of both parties involved in the transaction is also a critical aspect of a PPA. The seller of the renewable energy should be able to demonstrate that they have the capacity to deliver the energy as per the agreement, while the buyer should demonstrate their financial capacity to purchase the energy over the long term.

Delivery and Performance

The PPA should outline the terms and conditions for the delivery of the renewable energy. It should specify the timeframes for delivery and the expected level of performance, including the minimum amount of energy to be supplied. The agreement should also provide remedies for any failure to deliver or meet performance standards.

Insurance and Indemnification

PPAs involve significant financial commitments, and therefore the contract should provide adequate protection for both parties. The agreement should specify the type and level of insurance coverage required to protect the parties against losses arising from damages or accidents. Additionally, the PPA should include indemnification clauses that protect both parties from losses incurred due to negligence or willful misconduct.

Termination and Default

PPAs should include termination and default clauses that outline the conditions under which the agreement can be terminated and the consequences of doing so. The terms and conditions for default and termination should be clear and concise to minimize the potential for disputes.


PPAs are complex agreements that require careful consideration of various factors. Pricing arrangements, creditworthiness of the parties, delivery and performance, insurance and indemnification, and termination and default are key issues that should be considered when drafting a PPA. By addressing these critical issues, sellers and buyers can enter into a mutually beneficial and reliable long-term relationship for the supply of renewable energy.